Why Protests Rarely Work

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On September 17th, 2011, New York City’s Zuccotti Park became Occupied. Thousands of protesters took to the park, which is situated in the heart of New York City’s financial district, to protest a wide variety of issues, the most prominent being the growing income inequality in the United States. Over the course of the next two months, thousands of protestors occupied the park to have their voices heard. Eventually the protestors were forced out of Zuccotti Park on November 15th, 2011.

Almost three years later, nothing has materialized out of these protests. Income inequality has actually increasednone of the demands or goals of the protestors have been achieved. Critics will point to the fact that the Occupy Movement was incredibly disorganized, which was certainly one of the reasons for its ineffectiveness, but other much more organized demonstrations have been met with a similar fate. Why is this the case? In order to understand the reasons for most protests’ failures, we need to examine the history of counterculture as a whole.

Theodore Roszak

Theodore Roszak

The term counterculture was first coined in 1953 by, Theodore Roszak in his work The Making of a Counter Culture, but instances of counterculture have been in play for centuries. Romanticism was one of the first documented counter cultural movements, the ideologies of which eventually led to the French Revolution. The Hippie movement of the 1960s is perhaps the most synonymous with counter cultural movements, and many Baby Boomers were a part of this generation. Widespread protests about war and the destruction of the environment formed the core of hippie activism. This movement continued into the 1970s, and was replaced by the punk counterculture into the 80s, and the latter supplanted and rebranded as grunge in the 1990s, culminating in the suicide of Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain. Modern day activists vary from hipsters to anarchists, and the causes all of these counter cultures stand for are very similar in nature; what is different is how the message is conveyed.

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In their work The Rebel Sell, philosophers Joseph Heath and Andrew Potter discuss the condition that exists for many counterculturists. What unites all counter culture is an opposition to the mainstream; “the man”; the “system”. A rejection of mass media and corporations that control the lives of the masses and a taste for the alternative and revolutionary will always define a counterculturist. Capitalism is also met with great opposition and heavily criticized by counterculturists, which, as Heath and Potter discuss, is ironic because counterculture is actually one of the driving forces behind capitalism. In their work The Pirate Organization, Rodolphe Durand and Jean-Phillippe Vergne discuss the benefits that industry “pirates” – essentially, counterculturist companies or services – impact and often improve the capitalist system. How can that be? Why are the opponents to a system they treat with such disdain actually assisting in its development and perpetuation? Two words: Market competition.

When the hippie movements of the 1960s protested corporations, some of their largest targets were the Detroit Big 3: Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler. These three automakers were criticized as promoting a culture of “planned obsolescence” and forcing consumers to purchase new vehicles every few years by constantly innovating and updating existing models. The cultural effect of “keeping up with the Joneses” was in full effect in North America during the 1960s, and automakers were guilty of this as any appliance manufacturer or clothing retailer. The hippies wouldn’t stand for it, and ironically, a marketing opportunity was born. Enter the Volkswagen Beetle. Volkswagen saw an opportunity to market its iconic sedan to hippies as an alternative to anything produced by the Detroit Big 3, and it produced massive dividends. Hippies were victims to the exact mass media and corporatization that they had been protesting against.

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Punk culture of the 70s and 80s was not immune to this as well. Far more aggressive than their hippie counterculturist predecessors, punks preferred mohawks to long hair and beards, Doc Martens, Blundstones, and Chuck Taylor sneakers to Birkenstock sandals, and leather jackets to tie-die t-shirts. However, all of these products were created by large companies similar to those being protested against, the only difference was the marketing strategy. In the rejection of Nike, many punks and grunge counterculturists protested heavily against the sportswear company’s use of sweatshops, which culminated in the Seattle Riots of 1999. There is a famous example of some protesters kicking in the store windows at a Nike flagship store in Seattle while wearing Nike sneakers.

The lesson to be learned from all of this?

There is a great deal of hypocrisy and misdirected hate present in counterculturists, and in fact, there is no such thing as “counterculture”, as the very culture being countered is simultaneously being supported by the actions of the “counterculturists”. There is no one “system” or evil entity that can be targeted, as society is far more complex than that. The “system” does not exist; our world is a grab bag of social institutions that are loosely sewn together to create the fabric of our society. There are simply popular tastes and alternative tastes, and many different ones at that. It all depends on how “cool” you want to appear by your product associations and lifestyle tastes.

When imperialism ended, capitalism became the dominant form of economy on the planet. Peasants who were literally forced to toil in fields and factories now had the choice to work in order to pursue life’s pleasures. Whenever there has been a protest against the wealthy and/or large corporations, counterculturists often seek allegiance with the working class. Unfortunately, to protest and upheave the very economic system that provides them with the liberties of life seems counterintuitive to the average working class citizen, so these protests almost always fail as a result. In the protesters’ eyes, what they are offering the masses is liberation from the “system”, but protesters are misguided in the sense that everyone shares their views that the “system” is this controlling, depressing force. It is simply a division of views on how happiness is gained in life.

Counterculturists view the culture, or "system", they are rebelling against like the scenario presented in The Matrix

Counterculturists view the culture, or “system”, they are rebelling against like the scenario presented in The Matrix

Despite the counterculturist notion that mass media is dictating our lives for us and corporations are controlling us with their products and services, those who participate in mainstream culture do not necessarily share this view. They treat the world like a form of The Matrix, in which everything that exists in our world is a lie manufactured by a “system” (akin to The Machines in The Matrix), and that in order to reach true salvation, members of society must be “unplugged” and take the red pill. In the eyes of a counterculturist, there is a dichotomy of good and evil in the world. Big corporations and governments are inherently evil, and everyone else is “good”.  But what if this “system” -these “machines”- did not actually exist as described? Our society is much more complex than simply mainstream and alternative. Humans have much more complex interests that simply cannot be grouped into two columns.

It is this misdirection that is the primary limiting factor of protests and solidarity demonstrations. Several ongoing examples exist in North America today. Protestors far too often take up causes that do not directly affect them, and those directly affected are rarely, if ever, found among the protestors. During the infamous Paris uprising of 1968, students composed the bulk of the initial wave of protestors, denouncing capitalism, consumerism, and the “system”. Workers did eventually join the strike, but they weren’t protesting against any of these ideologies in the hopes that they could instead flock to art galleries or poetry recitals; the workers simply wanted higher wages, which they eventually received. The higher wages were used to further indulge in the very “evils” of capitalism that the students were protesting against.

1968 Paris Uprising

1968 Paris Uprising

The students’ allegiance with the workers was only in the form of protest, but the fact that the workers did not desire any of the “freedoms” from the “system” that the students did is evidence that what is a class interest is not always a general interest. Just because one group feels that there is an injustice in the world doesn’t mean all others will.

 

Perhaps no company has come under more criticism and protest than biotech giant Monsanto. Protestors of Monsanto and other biotechnology companies point to the fact that these companies actively manufacture and promote the use of GMOs and strict regulations for farmers that use their products. They cite past examples of lawsuits the company has taken up against farmers in the past and accuse them of bullying and forcing farmers to bend to the company’s will. The ironic thing is that these protestors are never directly affected by the actions of a company like Monsanto; i.e., they are rarely, if ever, farmers.

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The farmers that were sued in the past were all guilty of stealing seeds manufactured by Monsanto and replanting them in significant amounts without purchasing them. But if you look at most people largely opposed to GMOs, a large majority of them are not farmers, or even scientists. They are individuals who have a preference for the alternative to the products of a big corporation, and as a result, define the mainstream products and corporations as “evil”. It is this mistrust of government and large corporations that produces quack science as well.

Under the ideology of counterculture, those affected by the “system” are all victims, but as Heath and Potter argue, “The problem with assuming that everyone is the victim of a total ideology is that it becomes impossible to state what would count as evidence for or against this thesis. In a world of this type, countercultural rebellion is not just unhelpful, it is positively counterproductive.”

The misdirected hate placed on large corporations like Monsanto is not due to the fact that they are “evil”; they are simply the mainstream choice and those with alternative tastes do not like that. There is no right or wrong in this case: it is simply a matter of preference. The large corporations are merely painted as “wrong” because of the victim complex employed by many counterculturists. Humans are emotionally wired to feel sympathy for a victim, so it is difficult to form an argument against counterculturists without inciting an emotive, and largely unresolvable, response.

clicktivism/armchair activism: activism born on the Internet

clicktivism/armchair activism: activism born on the Internet

In addition to the misdirection of protests, the course of action undertaken by counterculturists is the other major downfall of public demonstrations against an issue. Tangible reform is not something that can achieved overnight or even within a few months of occupying a park. It is incredibly easy for individuals to become involved with a cause over social media or by signing an online petition, but this “armchair activism” ultimately does not produce any results. As Malcolm Gladwell wrote in a brilliant essay on the shortcomings of armchair activism published in the New Yorker: “The Internet lets us exploit the power of these kinds of distant connections with marvellous efficiency. It’s terrific at the diffusion of innovation, interdisciplinary collaboration, seamlessly matching up buyers and sellers, and the logistical functions of the dating world. But weak ties seldom lead to high-risk activism.”

Political reform is a painfully lengthy and boring process, and the reason that most protests don’t work is that counterculturists don’t have the proper attention span to achieve their goals. The Occupy Movement was a perfect example of this: protestors threw a massive list of changes in their opponent’s face without any clear course of action or leadership. Our generation is famously impatient, and the Occupy Movement highlighted that fact.

The world has undergone some fantastic changes in terms of social justice in the past hundred years. But if you examine all of those causes, from women gaining the right to vote to racial segregation ending, those processes took decades to achieve, and they were universal in their appeal. In order to achieve real change in the world, protestors must often work for decades to make an impact, and by that time their concerns may have already been separately addressed without their input, or society may have shifted in a sense that these concerns no longer warrant change. The bottom line is, politics aren’t sexy to an activist, but protesting and causing a public ruckus is. Unfortunately, all that most protests achieve is a blurb in the news, some minor annoyance at the expense of the public and police officers, and wasted paper in the form of educational pamphlets and handouts.

 

If counterculturists want to actually create change in our society, a few things are required. First, you cannot achieve much in our world without power. This is not equivalent to wealth, but you do need to work hard to gain enough power to have influence over others to meet your agenda. The civil rights movement would not have had the effect it did if Martin Luther King Jr. did not possess the power and influence that he did.

Second, you need to accept that politics are boring and laborious in nature. Decisions take time, because there are so many important issues on the desks of politicians. Be patient and be prepared to work for years for your cause, knowing that all your hard work may still be for nothing. Third, make sure your issue is actually of importance for the greater good or truly atrocious in nature, and not just the groupthink or misplaced victimization of a minority. It simply will not hold any ground among the powers that be if not enough people think it’s important or terrible enough to be changed. Too often the mistake has been made by counterculturists assuming that “good for me” means “good for society”.

On June 11, 1963, Thich Quang Duc, a Buddhist monk from the Linh-Mu Pagoda in Hue, Vietnam, burned himself to death at a busy intersection in downtown Saigon, Vietnam  to bring attention to the repressive policies of the Catholic Diem regime that controlled the South Vietnamese government at the time.

On June 11, 1963, Thich Quang Duc, a Buddhist monk from the Linh-Mu Pagoda in Hue, Vietnam, burned himself to death at a busy intersection in downtown Saigon, Vietnam to bring attention to the repressive policies of the Catholic Diem regime that controlled the South Vietnamese government at the time.

The world needs activism to spread awareness, education, and promote change. Truly great things have been achieved by counterculturists throughout history. What we often forget is that these individuals worked incredibly long and hard at what they hoped to achieve. They had a distinct, measurable vision of their goal, but they also understood limitations inherent in the system. Their methods may not have always been the flashiest, but they got the job done. Our culture of instant gratification often leads us to ignore that fact.

 

 

 

 

 

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Hey You! The Rise of Name Targeted Marketing

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Coca-Cola was really onto something when they launched their “Share a Coke” campaign in the summer of 2014. The premise was simple: produce a new label for their products that included a person’s name on it. Ranging from the common to the more obscure, the campaign provided consumers with a chance to personalize their beverage purchase. Our names are something we all hold dear to ourselves; they are our source of pride and identity. From custom engravings to monogrammed clothing to Bort name tags, we love our name and all that it represents about ourselves. Coca-Cola’s campaign cleverly exploited that area of pride and borderline narcissism and drove a sales increase for the first time in over a decade.

We’ve always been attached to our names and the effect that personalization has on a product we purchase, but historically, that was always offered at a premium. You have to pay extra to get your shirt or wallet monogrammed; a custom engraving on a piece of jewelry costs a little bit extra, and you can even get an engraving on something as trivial as an iPad nowadays. Why has this most recent foray into our attachment to our names proven so popular? Our desire for individuality and self-expression is higher than ever before.

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Currently, I have 6 readily available methods of self-expression at my fingertips: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, SnapChat, and this website. I am connected to the world in 6 different ways and can broadcast a wide variety of content to all those who care enough to follow, like, or connect with me. For some people, they have less ways of doing this; for others, more. Humans operate in a tribe mentality at our core: we have certain rules and regulations for what is acceptable and what is not. This goes for our appearance, our vernacular, and our interests. Unfortunately, we also operate at a deeper level of individuality. Humans have the ultimate desire to be seen as special, and we yearn to be celebrated for it. Ironically, it is our commitment to tribe mentality and the fear of being shunned as an outcast or a “loser” that keeps us in line with what our tribe dictates. It also keeps us depressed as we struggle to keep up with whatever the acceptable practices and metrics of our tribe are, even if we do not necessarily desire to fully engage in them.

Social media is but a glimpse into our desire to be creative, humourous, and individual. Generally, the more active on social media we are, the greater desires we possess for self-expression, and the more prone to narcissism we are. Considering that almost 2 billion people use social media in some way now, it’s safe to say that worldwide narcissism is on the rise. Considering that narcissism was historically a trait more common in those who possessed a higher income and education level, it’s no wonder that in the past, an extra dose of narcissism with a product, such as monogramming, was also the more expensive option. Today, with the rampant spread of narcissism thanks to social media, companies are experiencing a great deal of success targeting the narcissism and desire for individuality of youth and adults alike.

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Before Coke launched a widespread name campaign, Harvey’s, a Canadian fast food chain, launched a contest to name a burger after a lucky contestant. While this proved successful, it did not have the same impact as Coke’s campaign due to the fact that only 1 winner was to be chosen, but when you bought a Coke with your name on it, that felt like a small victory all in its own. The risk was simply not worth it compared to a guaranteed reward, albeit a less impactful one. Coca-Cola’s approach was just the beginning, but the name effect has trickled down. In the city of London, Ontario, a few examples of using name targeted advertising have emerged:

Stobie’s, a local pizza parlour, has been running a very successful social media advertising campaign that provides a free slice of pizza to anyone whose name matches the 4 randomly chosen names drawn each day. All that is required of the winners is that they make a post on their own social media outlets to give Stobie’s thanks.

To help encourage thirsty bar-goers to attend the establishment that they are promoting at, Lion’s Den U, a student lifestyle multimedia company based out of London and Toronto has started a campaign where they select a list of names. If your name is on the list, you get free cover to the establishment they are promoting for.

A very simple premise indeed, but the effect is powerful: these two companies have made their product personalized and in a way, “called out” their customers. The promotion has a limited time offer and a personal approach, and that is where the appeal and success of it lies: a free slice of pizza is nice, but a free slice of pizza just because of who you are is infinitely more appealing. I predict that it is only a matter of time before other larger companies follow suit and start to “personalize” their products.

Coke’s approach was manageable because a bottle of pop is not a significant investment on the part of the consumer, so food and beverage companies will have no problem adjusting their approach. Unlike a larger investment like a wrist watch, where paying a little extra for an engraving isn’t a lot to ask, very few people are going to pay to personalize an immediately consumable, inexpensive product. Coca-Cola has done a remarkable job manufacturing free additions of narcissism and sentimentalism for its customers. Product caused narcissism is no longer a frivolous pursuit; everyone wants to feel important. I await the day we starting seeing Mark (instead of Mars) and Henry bars (forget the Oh!) on our shelves.

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Why Hipsters Dress Like Lumberjacks: The Story of the “Lumbersexual”

imagesI recently came across this article that describes the trend of the “lumbersexual”, which describes the appearance of an “lumberjack” many hipsters and other trendy males have adopted. The rampant incidence of beards, flannels, long hair, and work boots being sported by young, urban males is the basis for the term “lumbersexual”, which brings back memories of the equally inane term “metrosexual” to describe fashionably conscious and well-groomed males of the early to mid 2000s. My issue with the article in question is that the author failed to truly investigate how this whole trend came to be. Time for a history lesson.

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How to be an urban lumberjack. 1: Selvedge denim, just like the railroad workers used to wear 2: Flannel cap 3: Axe (not the body spray you used in grade 8) 4 and 5: ??? 6: Diemme work boots 7: Flannel shirt

In 2008, North America experienced the worst financial crisis since the stock market crash of 1929. Millions were laid off, businesses underwent massive restructuring and organizational changes, and society as a whole became a lot more conservative with their money. People no longer could afford to live a life of excess. Consumer tastes demanded longer-lasting, quality goods that would last them many years into the future. It was at this time that the “Workwear” trend in men’s (and to a lesser degree, women’s) fashion took hold. Instead of new, shiny, elegant clothing, male consumers of the world demanded rugged clothing crafted from a quality manufacturing process.

Almost overnight, large fashion houses started cranking out workwear inspired pieces. Entire brands based around a workwear focus even started to pop up. Japanese influence also took an upswing, as the staple garments of the Japanese blue collar industry became the darlings of numerous menswear brands in the form of “repro” (short for reproduction) designs. Even American workwear legend Levi’s decided to get in on the fun, and launched their LVC (Levi’s Vintage Clothing) line to produce a variety of high quality reproductions of classic workwear pieces.

Bottega Veneta FW/08: The most expensive pair of coveralls you'll ever see.

Bottega Veneta FW/08: The most expensive pair of coveralls you’ll ever see.

Bottega Venetta produced workwear inspired pieces like luxurious cotton coveralls and cashmere fingerless gloves. Ralph Lauren launched their double Rl line, RRL, to mimic what LVC was doing. Engineered Garments, launched by Japanese designer Daiki Suzuki, is influenced by the sturdy and cropped garments worn by pre-WWII Japanese blue collar workers. Selvedge denim became a huge trend, and numerous companies were created; some still exist to this day, many have seen their revenues wane with the times. Red Wing boots, long seen as an American classic for their construction and durability, started to be seen on the streets of New York and Los Angeles on the feet of the fashion conscious.

Daiki Suzuki of Engineered Garments showcasing a blazer from FW/11

Daiki Suzuki of Engineered Garments showcasing a blazer from FW/11

For two years, the workwear trend boomed. Like all popular fashion trends, eventually the workwear tastes of the fashion savvy eventually trickled down to urban trendsetters. It was at this time that mention of the “urban lumberjack” was first seen in publications outside the fashion industry’s inner circle. Flannel shirts, selvedge jeans, duck cotton coloured pants, and sturdy leather boots became popular amongst the hipster crowds of Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and Queen West.

This influx of workwear inspired clothing was closely coupled to societal tastes at the time. Urban young adults grew tired of the “fake” and modern direction that many cities were taking. Many young males and some females were affectionately drawn to the more authentic side of things: this included all things rural, outdoorsy, and rugged.

What trends were common around this time?

1) Shopping local, supporting your farmer’s market

2) Urban farming/gardening

3) The craft beer industry started to take off

4) Beards became en vogue, as did growing your hair longer, perhaps sporting a man bun in the process.

5) Country music became the most popular form of music in North America

6) Folk Music went mainstream; Mumford & Sons won a few Grammies

7) Many TV series were created to reflect these tastes: Duck Dynasty, Mountain Men, Yukon Men – really any “blue collar” themed show was the result of the jaded urban inhabitant’s yearning for a more authentic, rugged sense of self. Dirty Jobs was a great reflection of this.

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This myriad of trends gave birth to the lifestyle of the urban lumberjack, or what is now apparently known as the lumbersexual. Contrary to what the article in question referenced, the lumbersexual did not arise out of gay culture. The urban lumberjack is largely one borne out of the larger hipster countercultural movement, which has evolved from comically large sunglasses and keffiyeh scarves to dressing like lumberjacks and drinking Pabst Blue Ribbon or craft beers.

The hippies of the 60s/70s...

The hippies of the 60s/70s…

Countercultures are created simply as an alternative to the mainstream; there is no true stance or constant activist principle behind them. If we examine perhaps the most famous counterculture example, the hippie, we associate these individuals with environmental activism and freedom from government control. Ironically, these same youth who were so against destroying the environment and big oil were also the primary consumers in the 1980s when the SUV – perhaps the most destructive vehicle for the environment ever created- was conceived. These same bell-bottom wearing flower children were now suburban adults driving their kids to soccer practice in their 4 wheeled tank that seated 7.

...became the SUV driving suburban parents of the 80s.

…became the SUV driving suburban parents of the 80s.

Of course, there were the genuine (read: authentic) individuals who truly did care for the environment and still hold the same stance today as they did 50 years ago, but the vast majority of individuals who participate in countercultural movements do so as a means of social leveraging. To be authentic, to be “cool”, is a large motivator in our society. Our society is comprised of numerous sub-cultures, all who hold a certain belief and standard of what is “cool” to them. For those who have grown weary of the hustle and bustle of the city and yearn for the simpler country life,  the lumbersexual community gave them a sense of belonging, so they ascribed to it.

Even H&M, which used to be a store for "metrosexual" men, has jumped on the urban lumberjack bandwagon.

Even H&M, which used to be a store for “metrosexual” men, has jumped on the urban lumberjack bandwagon.

The feminization of society in the last 50 years has also contributed to the rise of the urban lumberjack. Feminization is one of the reasons violence has declined in our society, but it has also left many men without a sense of what their masculine identity is. Dressing like a lumberjack, one of the stereotypically “manly” occupations is their attempt at trying to capture some of that bygone testosterone, even if they’ve never held an axe before.

Five years from now, we probably won’t see as many beards, flannel shirts, or work boots being sported by hip young adults across North America. Most of these individuals will have moved on, grown up, for a countercultural lifestyle in a capitalist society has a limited lifespan. The generation after them will find their own problem with the world, their own quest to be “cool”, and their tastes will reflect that. It’s what happened with the hippies in the 60s, the punks of the 70s, Grunge in the 90s, and now hipsters in the 2000s and beyond.